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Pathology, defined as the science of disease, is a field of medicine. It diagnoses disorders in cells and tissues with special tests. Pathology tests are generally performed to determine the diagnosis and stage of cancer. However, samples can be taken from all tissues in the body and examined with pathology tests and many diseases can be diagnosed. The person who prepares the reports indicating the diagnosis by evaluating the samples taken in order to make the diagnosis is called a pathologist. Pathology reports indicate the diagnosis reached as a result of the examination made by the pathologists. The stage of the discomfort is written. If the diagnosis cannot be made due to some reasons, additional examinations and re-samples may be requested in the report.
Pathology; It consists of the combination of the words ‘pathos’ and ‘logos’. In the ancient Greek language, the meaning of the word PATHOS means disease, and the meaning of the word logos means science. Pathology, defined as the science of disease, has an important place in medicine. The tissues, cells and organs in the human body have their own unique appearances. These image features, which are examined with the eye and with a microscope, are determined.
In case of illness; Many differences occur in tissues, cells and organs depending on the type of the disease. Pathologists examine the differences caused by the ailment with some special tools and techniques and diagnose the ailments.
Pathological examination is necessary for the definitive diagnosis, follow-up and response of many diseases. Cancer is one of them. Definitive diagnosis for all organ cancers is made by pathology. In various situations such as cervical cancer, pathological examination is also very important in order to diagnose the stages before the development of cancer and to take the necessary precautions. Pathological examinations are also required for the diagnosis of diseases other than cancer. These will be listed as follows;
Sent to the laboratory for examination by pathologists; Tissue, cell, organ, fluids are named as examples. A pathology report is prepared in order to report the result obtained as a result of the examination of these samples. Contents included in a pathology report;
– Diagnosis: Under this heading, the diagnosis considered as a result of the examinations made by the pathologist is written. The degree, severity and prevalence of the symptoms of the diagnosed disease are indicated. If there are no symptoms of discomfort in the sample examined, an explanation in the form of “normal findings” may be included. If necessary, there may be a statement such as ” biopsy is recommended to be repeated ”. When the diagnostic section in the pathology report is evaluated in terms of the physician who wants to examine it, enlightening information about the considered illness is obtained. It will be certain whether the condition is considered as a pre-diagnosis or not. Treatment methods will be determined according to the level of the disease.
– Microscopy: Under this heading, the properties of the examined tissues under the microscope are specified. The information in this section is in a form that can only be understood by the physician.
– Macroscopy: Under this heading, the features seen by the eye are specified. How many samples have been examined, their size and color are included in this section.
In order not to spoil the parts taken for the examination of pathology and not to lose their properties, they are placed in chemical protective liquid and sent to the pathology laboratory. Samples that have reached the laboratory are recorded, first of all their external appearance is evaluated, and the sections that need to be examined with a microscope are selected and separated.
These sections are sampled and processed to allow very thin sections to be taken. These sections prepared later are painted with the help of a special paint. Painted sections are examined with a light microscope. If sufficient growth cannot be achieved with a light microscope, an electron microscope is used. In this way, cells and tissues are examined directly. In addition, samples taken from the pathology laboratory can be stained with special dyes to make diagnosis easier, and genetic examination can be performed. It is possible to state that the procedures performed in the pathology laboratory are like this.